Facts to know about Indo-Pakistan War of 1965

The second Indo- Pak war in 1965 was started by the Pakistani Army. The war took place after Pakistan launched a covert operation across the ceasefire line in Kashmir. Pakistan attacked first by occupying the Kanjarkot area in Kutch. It subsequently opened new areas of war in Jammu and Kashmir. The war ended with UN intervention with both sides moving back to pre-war positions.

Let’s have a look at 10 most interesting facts related to 1965 Indo-Pak war:

1.The 1965 war between India and Pakistan is said to be the the one of the most fiercely fought wars to be fought after World War II.The war was fought on the western front of India starting from Rann of Kutch to Kashmir.

2. It all started in the month of January 1965 when Pakistani Army started ‘Operation Desert Hawk’ in the Rann of Kutch. The main motive of the Pakistan army establishment was to keep the Indian forces engaged in Kutch so that the Pakistani Army could launch an attack in Kashmir.

3.After the misson in Rann of Kutch a force of around 33,000 infiltrators who were mostly from the Pakistan Army crossed the Line of Control (LoC) from Kashmir in the month of August and gave it the name ‘Operation Gibraltar’. However it’s a bitter truth that the Indian defence establishment came to know about the aggression of Pakistani soldiers only after a week.

4. It was on 28th August 1965, that Indian army opened up its front and went eight kilometers inside the Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) and took control of strategically important Haji Pir Pass. It was an important victory for Indian forces since the control in Haji Pir Pass meant that Indian Army can take control over Muzzaffarad.

5. The Pakistani Army also started ‘Operation Grand Slam’ on 01st September in the Akhnoor sector of Jammu & Kashmir. The idea was to cut all supply line of the Indian Army and take Akhnoor under thier control. The PAkistani Army started heavy shelling in the Chamb and Jurian region.

6. It was after the Pakistani aggression in the Akhnoor sector that the then defence minister of India S B Chauhan decided to involve Indian Air Force in the war. The 45th Squadron of IAF was put into the service which launched a direct attack on the Pakistani forces.

7. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri took a historic decision to put pressure on the Pakistani Army .Lal Bahadur Shastri gave the Indian Army the permission to launch an attack in Pakistan. It was for the first time that the Indian Army crossed International Border and attacked Lahore under the leadership of Major General Prasad who was heading the 15th Infantry Division of Indian Army.

8. The Pakistani Army launched a counter attack with its newly acquired Patton Tank the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War was witness to the largest tank battle in military history between World War II and 1965. The Pakistani army with its fleet of 97 Patton tanks were moved towards Amritsar after they took control of KhemKaran and Munnabao . The tank were weighing about 60 tons and also equipped with 105mm cannon and M60 rifle.The battle of Asal Uttar turned the tide and also became the graveyard for the Patton tanks in the 1965 India-Pakistan war in favour of India and ultimately led to the surrender of Pakistan.

9. Hawaldar Abdul Hamid played a crucial role when he in a jeep fitted with a recoilless gun attacked the heavy         Patton tanks in their most vulnerable position and destroyed them. This battle led to the creation of Patton Nagar (or “Patton City”) at the site of the battle. This is because a large number of Patton tanks fielded by the Pakistani forces were either captured or destroyed at the scene. He destroyed a total of seven Patton tanks. He was posthumously awarded with the highest gallantry award of the Country – Param vir Chakra.

10. However Indian forces were able to subdue the Pakistani tanks and scored a decisive win in 1965. By Sept 22 both sides had agreed to a UN mandated cease-fire ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate.

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